ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT | VOL. 2
THE OD CYCLE
THE CONTRACTING & ENTRY PHASE
- These initial steps involve:
Preliminary exploration of the organization’s problems and issues.
Developing a collaborative relationship between the OD Practitioner and key members of the client organization regarding working on those issues.
- In major projects, it often is useful to involve an internal or external OD Practitioner in a team.
SOME COMMON ISSUES
- What is the presenting problem and how do you determine what are the real organizational problems and issues?
- Who is the client and how do you deal with the multiplicity of stakeholders?
- How much readiness for change is present and how can a satisfactory degree be developed?
- Dealing with confidentiality vs. the need to surface important issues that may have been undiscussible?
- Consultant expertise and role
- Ethical and value system conflicts
It should include:
- Goals for and scope of the consulting project
- Anticipated results and mutual expectations
- Operating ground rules
- Role of the consultant
- Responsibilities of both consultant and client
- Resources,fees, and arrangements for payment
- Termination procedures
POTENTIAL “RED FLAGS” IN THE CONSULTANT-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP
- Insufficient or ambiguous level of commitment to change.
- Resistance or opposition by major stakeholders.
- Major clients lack power to influence change or manage the boundaries to allow change within their organization.
- Client’s desire to manipulate the consultant or use the consultant in ways that violate the latter’s ethical framework.
THE DIAGNOSTIC PHASE
- Aims to provide the organization and the OD practitioner with data,and decisions regarding what OD interventions are appropriate going forward.
- During this phase that the OD consultant can develop:
- understanding of the organizational situation
- what issues the organization is facing
- what strengths the organization possesses in order successful achieve any OD intervention.
- It provides the platform from which the organization is able to highlight what cultural, economic and capability shifts in the organization.
- How these shifts can be made and embedded for sustainable organizational performance.
KEY QUESTIONS DIAGNOSTIC PHASE SEEKS
- What data do we need for the OD programme?
- What methods and processes should we use for data collection?
- What resources are required to collect the data?
- What time and resources are the organization willing to commit?
- Who owns the data?
- Who will analyze and make sense of the data once it is collected?
- Having collected the data what revisions are required to the proposed OD programme?
FEATURES OF DIAGNOSIS
It should be:
- Be based on current, relevant data
- Result from joint involvement of both consultant and client(s).
- Make use of appropriate models of organizational functioning and dis-functioning.
- Deal with feelings in the client system
- Focus on key, underlying problems
- Energize the client to act in ways to improve the organization
THE INTERVENTION PHASE
- This phase decides what should be done to enable to organization to achieve sustainable organizational performance.
- It incorporates a wide range of interventions which cover maintenance work, consolidation, building on strengths and adapting to future changes.
CRITICAL QUESTIONS : INTERVENTION STAGE SEEKS
- What specific areas of change are required ?
- Is the focus of the intervention task, process or people?
- How planned or emergent should the intervention be given the culture of the organization?
- What intervention (tools and techniques) will provide the best fit to the organization and deliver the outcome required?
- The actions should be specific to the particular organization at this time.
- OD Practitioner and client should be involved in planning and carrying out the interventions.
- The client gets to make the final decisions.
- The actions should improve the client’s ability to deal with future problems.
THE EVALUATION PHASE
- The metrics are identified and agreed prior to the intervention taking place.
- Helps in understanding whether there has been a ROI from the OD intervention.
- The effectiveness of the work done and ensuring that value has been delivered to the organization in achieving sustainable organizational performance.
KEY QUESTIONS: EVALUATION PHASE
- Did the intervention achieve the purpose and required outcomes?
- Were the outcomes achievable given the budget, timescale and resources committed to the intervention?
- How can the evaluative process aid and reinforce the change process embarked upon?
- What tracking mechanisms, methods and approaches were used in reviewing the progress of the intervention?
TYPE OF EVALUATION DATA VALUED BY ORGANISATION
- Cost Savings
- Improved workforce planning
- Retention of key talent
- Operational effectiveness in innovation and research that maintain Profitability
- Better Customer Service Levels
- Delivery of organizational purpose